Liquid quenching provides the fastest cooling rates for any quenching process, and may be needed to achieve the desired hardness, especially for low-alloy steels. If not done with care, however, distortion and uneven material properties can result. CFD analysis of the quench tank can be used to improve the performance of existing quench facilities and can ensure that new quench facilities meet the target performance metrics.
The images below show the heat surface heat transfer coefficients on a set of generic parts before and after modification to a quench tank design. Further information can be found in a presentation given at the ASM Heat Treat Conference.